Review: Cartel Coffee Lab Ethiopia Kochere (Phoenix, Arizona)

When you think of airport coffee, you probably think of Starbucks, right? Well, if you ever find yourself in the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, make your way over to Terminal 4 to visit Cartel Coffee Lab’s PHX location. As is typical when I travel somewhere new, when I arrived in Phoenix, I Googled “best coffee roasters in Phoenix” and Cartel was a name I saw come up more than once. It being the holidays, family time was the priority so I didn’t have time to run around all over town to seek out roasters, but I was thrilled to see that Cartel had this airport location and I was hopeful that their beans would be fresh. Happily, they were!

When I took this bag of their Ethiopia Kochere to the register, I asked for a bag to carry the coffee in, because at that point I had my bags of Stumptown Sleigh Ride and Ritual’s Day Drinker seasonal espresso in my purse and I was running out of room. The barista asked what other beans I got and when I mentioned Ritual in particular, I got this reaction:

Nothing like meeting a complete stranger and feeling understood. #kindredspirits

Whole bean: Blackberry, butterscotch, nougat. Incredibly fragrant cofffee.

V60: The first wave of scent that hit me was of dog. Not wet dog, and it wasn’t unpleasant, but it definitely smelled like I was holding a wriggly puppy in my arms! As the coffee sat a bit, I got notes of floral stem, grass, and caramel. I did unintentionally brew this coffee a bit on the long side (3:50 extraction). This is a pretty dense bean – adjust your grinders accordingly.

AeroPress: Quite sweet and sugary! No dog here. I didn’t need to add any additional water to this cup – it had a complex, dry finish that was very enjoyable.

Chemex: Bright, dry, puckery coffee. Caramel and blackberry in this cup. Tart.

French press: Richer and sweeter flavor than the other coffee methods, but still bright in taste. Hard to pinpoint flavors in this cup. I will say though that compared to the AeroPress cup, the french press coffee tasted oddly watered down.

Espresso: Since I liked this coffee so much in the AeroPress, I opted to experiment with making it as a single-origin espresso. I only pulled a few shots, but I got a lovely flavor of lemon and lilac with a sugary aroma.

Summary: Loved these beans brewed in an AeroPress. Also makes a nice single-origin espresso if you’re into bright, floral flavor!

From the roaster: Black tea with subtle tropical fruit and floral qualities

Cartel Coffee Lab Ethiopia Kochere

Review: Batdorf and Bronson Kenya AA Gatumbi (Atlanta, Georgia)

This is the second of two bags I picked up from the Batdorf and Bronson cafe in Atlanta (the first was their excellent Dancing Goats Blend). I’m always intrigued by Kenyan coffees as no two of them have ever been quite the same, so I was curious what awaited me in this bag.

Whole bean: The beans look to be a nice medium roast – a little darker than I’ve observed in the past from other roasters, but not “dark” by any means. The air was filled with a butterscotch sweetness when I broke the seal, and I was reminded of nougat from candy bars.

French press: The coffee smelled a bit plasticky right off the bat, but it faded after a minute. Upon my first sip, my tongue was flooded with the taste of chocolate truffles. Decadence in a mug!

Chemex: All I wrote here were the words “vanilla pudding.” Wow.

AeroPress: Vague flavor of toasted almond, but it was obscured by an unpleasant acidity. Adding a bit of water helped tame the acidity to manageable levels, but this wasn’t my favorite method for this coffee.

V60: This method had the most character, with flavors of peach and raw almond. Very nice!

Summary: If you like sweet chocolate and vanilla flavors, try this in a french press or a Chemex. If you like fruitier finishes, try this in a V60. I couldn’t choose a personal favorite – they are all so different but all very enjoyable!

From the roaster: Silky and sweet. Peach, molasses, butterscotch

This coffee is not currently available on their website, but here’s a link to Batdorf and Bronson’s online store

Review: Commonwealth Coffee Panama Carmen Estate (Denver, Colorado)

I’ve had my eye on trying Commonwealth Coffee for a while, since I saw that Oak Lawn Coffee in Dallas carries their beans along with Heart Coffee (one of my favorite roasters). Commonwealth is a young company (it’s only been around for a little over two years), and when I read the “About Us” section on the company’s website, the word that kept coming into my head was “inclusive” (though it was not a word used). These guys do NOT sound like snobs, that’s for sure!

Whole bean: These smell awesome. Creamy and complex aroma.

V60: I admit, my very first impression immediately after brewing this cup was off-putting because it smelled to me like cherry cough syrup. However, that scent dissipated very quickly and there was no trace of that flavor in the cup (thank goodness)! This was a bright, deceptively smooth cup that was reminiscent of cherry limeade (but definitely weighted more toward lime than cherry). Rich, creamy finish.

AeroPress: Butterscotch sweetness and richness, plus bright lemon flavor. This was a satisfying cup that needed no additional water to dilute the concentrate – I was quite happy to drink this straight.

Chemex: This was a complex cup that had a dry finish reminiscent of a Bordeaux. Very nice!

French press: Of the four cups, I had the hardest time pinning down the flavors here. Delicious syrupy body with rich flavors of toffee, cherry, and rose. This cup really made me slow down and have to think about what it was I was drinking. Great if you’re already awake, but I don’t know that I would be able to handle this at 6:00 am on a weekday — it might be too complicated for my fuzzy, sleep-deprived brain to fully enjoy! I feel like this coffee would be a combination of the overtly chipper voice of morning-show radio DJs plus the thought-provoking content of NPR/public radio. Nothing wrong with either of these things, but I would have to be in the right mood to not be overwhelmed and/or irritated by the combination. 😉

Summary: A pleasantly complex bean that will please people that like bright flavors. I wasn’t able to pick out most of the flavors in the roaster’s notes, but I did enjoy this brewed in a French press. I’m looking forward to trying other offerings from Commonwealth in the future.

From the roaster: Peach jam, cinnamon, kaffir lime, vanilla ice cream

This coffee is not currently sold online.

Commonwealth Coffee Online Store

Review: Heart Coffee Roasters Kenya Muranga (Portland, Oregon)

It’s nearly Monday afternoon where I live, but I hope you’re all having a bunch of happy mondays wherever you are! Another week beginning, another Heart coffee to review.

Whole bean: This has a light and slightly tannic aroma that smells like sliced apples – not as tart as something like a Granny Smith; maybe more like a Gala or Pink Lady.

French press: Full-bodied, thick brew which tasted a bit tart and strongly of apples. The flavor was not as sweet as its aroma.

Chemex: Compared to the french press cup, this cup was more tart and light in character. The finish was like lemonade – it made me pucker a little but it wasn’t unpleasantly tart. The flavor overall was pretty subtle.

AeroPress: The concentrate carried the flavor of apples along with a slightly dry but rich finish.

V60: Light body, eerily reminiscent of oolong tea with a hint of apple flavor.

Summary: Okay, clearly this coffee has the apple flavor printed on the bag, though I wasn’t able to identify it as honeycrisp in particular. This seems like a great coffee for the colder months of the year; December and its falling temperatures makes me think of apple cider, and this coffee fits the bill. No one brew method stood out to me as “the best,” but I would probably stick to making this in either the press pot or the AeroPress; I like the heavier body for this coffee.

From the roaster: Butterscotch, blackcurrant, honeycrisp

Heart Kenya Muranga

Review: Chromatic Coffee Gamut Espresso (San Jose, California)

I have a new favorite espresso blend!!!

With a name like Chromatic, this is clearly an espresso blend after my own heart. This coffee company has been on my list of must-try roasters for some time now. I was very much hoping to get my hands on a bag of Chromatic Coffee during my recent trip to San Jose, but when I found out that their flat rate shipping is only $2.00, I decided that I could wait since the shipping is so affordable. Props to Chromatic for getting the beans to me in just two days (roasted on a Tuesday, received on Thursday!).

A nice touch: My coffee came packaged with a piece of Werther’s Original butterscotch candy. Thus far, Chromatic and Red Bird are the only roasters that I’ve ordered from who send candy (Red Bird sends hard candy during the summer months and chocolate in the winter). Not necessary, but a welcome treat. 🙂

Typically, I start pulling espresso shots around 6-7 days post-roast, but I broke into this bag 4 days post-roast because I couldn’t wait. I actually hadn’t pulled any espresso shots at home for a few weeks prior to this, so I figured I would need some practice to dust off my skills.

Whole beans: Mmm. Creamy fragrance that was mild but full of promise.

The first pass choked the machine due to too fine of a grind, so I adjusted the settings on my Vario. The second pass was still a bit slow (ristretto territory) but I started making noises in the kitchen of shock and delight. This espresso had a luxurious texture and a complex but eminently comforting flavor of chocolate and caramel with just a hint of red cherry. I was astounded at how good it was! I continued adjusting the grind and extraction time/volume to play with getting more/less fruit and more/less chocolate in the shot. All were tasty.

After six shots (and yes, I drank them ALL) I made a latte for Shutterbug to test how well this espresso stood up in milk. He added about 1/2 tsp of sugar before I had a chance to taste the drink. When I did have a sip of his drink, my jaw dropped because it tasted like I had put the best butterscotch sauce in the world into the cup. I have never had a latte that tasted as much like dessert as this one.

The next day, I made myself a latte (no sugar). Blissful. Obviously not as sweet as the sweetened version from the previous day, but the same butterscotch flavor notes were there. Very, VERY easy to drink!

I continued to experiment with temperature and extraction rate. My personal favorite was a ristretto shot pulled at 18.5 g in a double basket, 201 degrees F, 15 gram output. This espresso was equally enjoyable straight and in milk. Straight, it was smooth yet complex with beautiful layers of caramel and nougat flavor that lingered for a long time on the palate. In milk, it simply screams butterscotch.

I kept putting off trying this in the AeroPress because I loved it pulled as espresso SO MUCH, but I felt I needed to see how it fared without the 9 bars of pressure. It had a sweet, rich, smooth chocolate flavor. No particular fruity or floral notes. There was an earthiness to the aroma while I was brewing the cup, but it dissipated pretty quickly. Overall, it was less interesting in the AeroPress vs. as an espresso shot (which is to be expected, really) but it makes a really enjoyable cup in the AeroPress, especially for someone that doesn’t like bright flavors in their coffee. This would be something I would be comfortable serving to a dark roast drinker; it had delicious toasty flavors with a nice depth.

Obviously, my home is not a cafe and there’s really no such a thing as a “house” espresso around here, but if I was running a cafe, THIS would be my choice. For the first time in 6+ months and innumerable espressos and coffees, Shutterbug actually asked me to order more of a particular coffee. In fact, it was more like he implored me! I was quite happy to oblige.

Summary: Get your hands on this. Now. But leave some for me!

From the roaster: Chocolate, butterscotch, creamy

Chromatic Coffee Gamut Espresso

Review: Intelligentsia Ethiopia Tikur Anbessa (Chicago, Illinois)

I’m pretty sure that Intelligentsia needs no introduction around here. I tried a V60 pourover cup of this coffee at Vero’s Coffee Bar and was struck by the flowery, peachy flavors. Naturally, I had to bring a bag home!

Whole bean: Creamy, earthy scent that smelled a bit like pinenuts with a hint of butterscotch.

V60: I had to make this cup twice because my usual grind setting was much too fine for these beans and caused the brewing to take longer than it should. Even at the coarser setting, my total brew time was 3:25, which is longer than I usually do (2:45-3:15).

Because I had picked up so much coffee on my California trip, I wasn’t able to open this bag until it was 12 days old. At the shop, the cup’s dominant scent and flavor was floral and fruity. However, at 12 days old, the pourover I made at home tasted much more like dark chocolate and butterscotch with some subtle floral notes on the finish. I was surprised at the change in flavor.

AeroPress: Dark chocolate aroma with a nice adicity on the finish. I drank this as a concentrate only because I wasn’t thinking and I emptied the kettle before the coffee in the AeroPress was done brewing, but I didn’t need to add water. Rich, strong brew with a liveliness to it.

Chemex: Here’s another instance where my grind was too fine for this bean. I did automatically adjust the grind a bit coarser than usual, but it wasn’t enough, because at the 4:00 mark the filter was still full of water that had yet to flow through the grounds. I was reluctant to start again and waste 44 grams of coffee beans, so I just took the filter out and drank the coffee that had brewed up to that point. This method produced a bit of a sour coffee, but that was my fault because it was likely underextracted. Tangy and bright but unbalanced.

French press: This produced a cup rich in dark chocolate notes with a tangerine finish. Smooth overall with a perky aftertaste! Nice balance.

I think this coffee is pretty delicious, but I was surprised at just how much the flavor changed between when the coffee was 3 days old (in the shop) vs. 12 days old (at home). In this case, I liked both but the increase in chocolate flavor and the decrease in fruit/floral flavor was very interesting.

To equate the flavors to music, the floral/fruity flavors seem like treble notes and the dark chocolate seems like bass notes, and I suppose it would make sense that the bass notes carry further over time…?

The generally accepted coffee dogma is that fresher is better. However, this bag had me questioning that assumption. I liked the three-day old coffee, and I liked the twelve-day old coffee, but for different reasons. The coffee seems like it was evolving as it aged.

Summary: Delicious coffee. If you prefer brighter, floral notes, drink this coffee as soon after roasting as possible. The chocolate/butterscotch flavors seem to come out in time, particularly in the V60 and french press.

From the roaster: Distinct citrus blossom aromas precipitate flavors of white peach and honeydew melon and a resonant dark chocolate finish.

Intelligentsia Ethiopia Tikur Anbessa

Review: thirty-thirty Coffee Co. Kenya Kirinyaga (Peoria, Illinois)

This is the last selection in my most recent shipment from Craft Coffee. I feel like I have been drinking a lot of African coffee lately (and there are still more African coffees to come in the pipeline!), but I am also learning that there is so much variety in the coffees from this continent that I am not likely to get bored anytime soon.

thirty-thirty Coffee is an independent coffee shop in Peoria, Illinois. I was curious about their name, and according to their website, “The name thirty-thirty Coffee Co. derives from the fact that the vast majority of gourmet specialty coffee is farmed between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the earth’s equator. Bearing that in mind, it is within these latitudes that thirty-thirty Coffee Co. will acquire its beans.”

Whole beans: Unlike the other African coffees I’ve been sampling recently, I don’t smell anything fruity or floral. It smells similar to brown sugar and maple syrup. Now I want oatmeal!

French press: Not as sweet in the cup as the smell promised. This coffee has a taste of celery on the finish. I like vegetables, but not in my coffee. Blech.

Chemex: Pleasantly tangy. Maple with a nice dash of lemon flavor. Light body.

AeroPress: Smooth, rich cup. Smells like butterscotch pudding with just a hint of citrus. This method definitely brought out more of the maple flavor and less of the fruit.

V60: Sweetest cup of the four. Medium body and nice balanced flavor!

Summary: This was unlike any other African coffee I’ve had up to this point. Very pleasant to drink, except for that note of celery in the French press. The V60 was my favorite cup of this batch.

From the roaster: butterscotch, dark amber maple syrup, clementine, meyer lemon

This coffee is not currently offered online.

thirty-thirty Coffee Co.

Review: Stumptown Ecuador Cariamanga Organic (Portland, Oregon)

This bag of Stumptown beans was an impulse buy; it ended up being the final bag of coffee beans I purchased while in Seattle. I had never tried beans from Ecuador before but the description on the bag sounded good, and the beans were extremely fresh.

Incidentally, almost all of the cafes I bought beans from on this trip offered me a free drink with purchase of a bag of beans. Great… except I bought 4 bags in the same day. Even I can’t stomach that much coffee in 8 hours! Stumptown did let me have a small sample (about 2 oz) of their nitro cold brew on tap as my freebie, since I told them I couldn’t handle a full drink. Refreshing stuff. I’m not big on cold brew, but this was nice on a sunny, warm day. It reminded me of a craft beer in texture.

Anyway, back to the Ecuador Cariamanga…

Whole beans: Tannic like tea… my throat tightened up once I smelled the beans. However, there was also a light, sweet note to these beans. You know those orange-slice jellied candies that are covered in granulated sugar and sold in bags at drugstores for 2/$1? These beans smelled like those candies.


French press: Sweet but tart brew with plenty of tannins. Light golden color, even after 4 minutes of brewing. I was most reminded of orange juice with just a touch of honey, along with black tea. Pretty refreshing, actually! The tannins were bothering me enough that I wondered if adding just a bit of sugar would mitigate them. It did – but even just 1/4 tsp of sugar made this brew much too cloyingly sweet for my taste. Blech.

Chemex: Light body. Kind of bland. Where’s the orange character? This coffee was much subtler overall with almost no citrus. It smelled like almond shortbread.

AeroPress: Ahhhh, here’s the orange flavor. Quite tart and brash. Full-bodied and assertive. I made this the traditional way as a concentrated coffee, and ended up not adding any hot water at all.

V60: Super smooth and balanced in the cup. Sweet and citrusy and a little buttery. Much less tart than any of the other methods.

Summary: Not bad at all! This is a very bright, lively coffee. It actually made 4 very different cups of coffee to my taste: French press – tea; Chemex – almond cookie; AeroPress: orange juice; V60: marmalade. Which is best? I liked the AeroPress and V60 versions best; I would probably opt for the V60 most days because I liked its balanced nature but the AeroPress kind of knocked me over with its intense flavors.

From the roaster: Tangerine, butterscotch, almond

This coffee does not appear to be sold online at the moment.

Stumptown Coffee

Review: Kaladi Brothers Coffee Costa Rica San Pablo (Anchorage, Alaska)

When I visited Seattle, my intention was to pick up as many locally-roasted Pacific Northwest coffees as I could feasibly drink in the next few weeks. This bag of Kaladi Brothers was the sole exception I made, mostly because I didn’t think I’d ever get another chance to try coffee from an Alaskan roaster without paying for shipping from Alaska, and because the coffee promised to be unlike anything I had ever tried before based on the processing description on the packaging.

(Maybe Alaska can be considered FAR Pacific Northwest?)

Walking into the Kaladi Brothers cafe reminded me a bit of the old TV show Northern Exposure. It felt pretty rustic, with lots of wood. Hardly the sterile, gleaming, glass/metal facade that you see at so many modern cafes. I didn’t see any bags of beans for sale, so I asked a barista and she went in the back and got me some. Here is where I broke one of my cardinal rules of coffee bean shopping. There was no roast date on the bag, but the barista assured me that the beans were very fresh (roasted within the past week), and she also said that this Costa Rica was her favorite. Ordinarily, I don’t buy beans without a roast date clearly labeled, but again, this was probably my one chance to try this brand, so I decided to go for it.

What makes this coffee different from other roasters? Their website has more information, but the major difference between this brand and other specialty coffee roasters is that Kaladi FREEZES all of their roasted coffee within 18 hours of roasting, which “ensures our coffee is absolutely ‘roaster fresh’ when you purchase it” (quote taken from the packaging). Freezing coffee is a hot (sorry, couldn’t resist!) topic in the coffee world, as some people swear it ruins the flavor and others claim there is no difference. I plan to be conducting my own experiment this month regarding freezing and brewing roasted beans, to see if there is a degradation of flavor. From a practical standpoint, shipping from Anchorage takes such a long time that I’m not surprised they freeze their beans to try and extend its shelf life.

Before I started my tasting, I accidentally knocked the bag over and some beans spilled onto my counter. Check out these whole beans (a truly random sample – these four beans were the ones that spilled out):




Notice the varying bean sizes and degrees of roast? The entire bag was like this. According to the packaging, Kaladi uses a hot air roaster vs. a traditional barrel roaster, which “results in a clean, uniform roast, that’s free of the bitter-tasting tars left behind in traditional roasters.” I will concede that the final product was not bitter, but the bag was full of different sized beans (some of which I swear are peaberries!), which would make it impossible to achieve a truly uniform roast.

The aroma of the whole beans had a smokiness to it, with buttery shortbread and just a hint of bittersweet chocolate. A few days after I opened the bag, the beans started smelling like gasoline. (!)

French press: This produced a cup that tasted like toffee and cocoa powder. Very dark and rich coffee.

Chemex: This coffee was quite sweet with a butterscotch flavor.

AeroPress: Extremely smooth with a chocolate fudge flavor.

V60: Nothing memorable in this method. I wrote “meh” in my notes.

I typically gravitate toward lighter roasts than this; this Kaladi coffee seemed like it was roasted a notch below Starbucks in roast level; fairly dark, but not burnt or oily. This particular coffee is one-dimensional to my palate, but if you like butterscotch/chocolate flavor, you might want to try this out. I have no way of comparing this coffee of course to an unfrozen batch, so I can’t say if the freezing hurt the flavor at all, but I was a little unnerved by the gasoline scent after the bag had been opened for about 3-4 days.

Summary: Filtered methods seem to bring out the best in this coffee: AeroPress for chocolate fudginess; Chemex for butterscotch sweetness. The inconsistent bean size and roast level, as well as the lack of transparency about how fresh the coffee truly is, makes it unlikely that I’ll choose to purchase this particular brand again.

From the roaster: No tasting notes provided

Kaladi Brothers Coffee

Review: Intelligentsia Black Cat Classic Espresso (Chicago, Illinois)

(Guest post from David Cooper, principal horn of the Dallas Symphony!)

There is nothing better than a good friend showing up at your door at 10 pm with freshly roasted Intelligentsia coffee! Saturday night after my concert I had just made it home and was sitting on the couch when my good friend Margaret Fischer came by with a gift from her trip to Los Angeles. She stopped by the Intelligentsia shop in Venice Beach and brought me back a treat! I love coffee but none more than Intelligentsia! I have found very few close to perfect coffees that are balanced and bring a smile to my face every time I take a sip! That coffee that is so good that time stops and it’s just you in moment with the coffee. That is Intelligentsia for me. They only have locations in 3 cities in the United States so you have to stock up on one of your visits to Los Angeles, Chicago, or New York, which makes it that much more precious. They do mail order as well but the shipping is as much as one bag of coffee, which is actually the only thing I don’t like about Intelligentsia. They use UPS for some reason and two bags of coffee shipping actually comes out to 13 dollars and some change. I love coffee probably more than the average person but even for me, 13 dollars is a little steep for the shipping and handling which brings us back to last night! Margaret brought me a bag of Intelligentsia to my door! Hand DELIVERED and FRESH!!!!

This is my first review for Coffee Cantata but I thought that I would happily review my all time favorite espresso, Black Cat Classic, which is the standard house blend espresso for Intelligentsia. Their motto is the pursuit of perfect coffee. They aren’t far off in my book. This espresso is right down the middle awesome. It’s like the Goldilocks of espresso. It isn’t too bright, it isn’t too dark, it has enough flavor, but not overpowering and with a dash of milk in your espresso, your shot turns into pure candy for sipping pleasure! For me most times espresso gets too bitter or too tangy or bright and to find an espresso that isn’t either one of these two is truly remarkable!

Upon opening the bag of Black Cat I got a fragrant caramel and butterscotch aroma! It smells exactly how you want your coffee to smell, close your eyes and get lost in the bouquet! One of the many reasons I drink coffee is that I am in love with the smell.

I decided to make my first cup of Black Cat with an AeroPress which is made by the same company that brought your that Frisbee with the hole in the middle that you bought at the science museum when you were a kid and flew for miles! I like to use the AeroPress simply because you can taste the bean without any other interference. I know I love this bean with my espresso maker but for reviewing purposes I wanted to be able to describe my coffee experience in great depth and flavor.

I prefer the inverted AeroPress for a little more extraction time. I ground my coffee on fine and measured it out with the black screw on filter holder full to the top. I boiled my water and let it cool off for a few seconds then I did an initial bloom of 45 seconds, I filled the AeroPress the rest of the way and let it steep for 1:30 and then did a 30 second plunge. I am still experimenting with steep and bloom times and grind. I might recommend a little more of a coarse grind because the coffee was almost a little too rich.

As I brought my nose to the rim of my cup and took a deep sniff and then had my first sip, I was again in heaven! My first sip my whole mouth was filled full of flavor. I tasted Cherry and a little light fruity flavor at the beginning and then ended with a smooth caramel butterscotch finish that I smelled when opening the bag. As I finished the cup the brightness was only slightly more intense and I was tasting a little less mellow sweet cherry, and a little bit of light orange. Overall, this coffee is not an AeroPress coffee but it still has the hints of what it will become with the Espresso maker. This is the most perfect espresso I have ever found and I will love to continue to put this up against any espresso that I come across. Time and time again I am reminded of why Intelligentsia is such a staple in the gourmet coffee world and what I love about their consistency that every time I get Black Cat it tastes like I remembered. You might find different espressos but you won’t find better.

David Cooper is guest writer for Coffee Cantata. He lived in Port Townsend, WA where he fell in love with coffee. David Cooper is Principal horn of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra. He is enjoying the elevation of coffee culture to Dallas, TX, his new home.

Intelligentsia Black Cat Classic Espresso